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HomeNewsTimeline: 75 years of partition and India-Pakistan tensions | India-Pakistan Partition Information

Timeline: 75 years of partition and India-Pakistan tensions | India-Pakistan Partition Information


India and Pakistan had been born 75 years in the past out of a bloody division of the subcontinent by the colonial British, an occasion generally known as partition.

In the present day, the 2 nuclear powers are deeply troubled neighbours, at odds primarily over the disputed territory of Kashmir.

Listed here are key dates within the fraught relations of the nuclear-armed rivals:

1947: Partition of India

In a single day on August 14-15, 1947, Lord Louis Mountbatten, the final viceroy of India, brings the curtain down on two centuries of British rule. The Indian subcontinent is split into primarily Hindu India and Muslim-majority Pakistan.

A poorly ready partition throws life into disarray, displacing some 15 million and unleashing sectarian bloodshed that kills almost two million individuals.

Interactive_Partition_migration3-04
(Al Jazeera)

1949: Kashmir’s division

Late in 1947, conflict breaks out between the 2 neighbours over Kashmir, a Muslim-majority area within the Himalayas.

A United Nations-backed, 770km (478-mile) ceasefire line in January 1949 turns into a de facto frontier dividing the territory, now often known as the Line of Management and closely militarised on each side.

Some 37 % of the territory is run by Pakistan and 63 % by India, with each claiming it in full.

1965: Second conflict

Pakistan launches a conflict in August 1965 towards India for management of Kashmir. It ends inconclusively seven weeks later after a ceasefire brokered by the Soviet Union.

1971: Bangladesh is born

The neighbours struggle a 3rd conflict in 1971 over Islamabad’s rule in then East Pakistan, with New Delhi supporting Bengali nationalists looking for independence for what would in March 1971 develop into Bangladesh. Three million individuals die within the brief conflict.

1974: Nuclear race

India detonates its first atomic bomb in 1974, whereas Pakistan’s first public check won’t come till Might 1998. India carries out 5 checks that 12 months and Pakistan six. Respectively the world’s sixth and seventh nuclear powers, they stoke international concern and sanctions.

1989: Kashmir rise up

An rebellion breaks out in Indian-administered Kashmir towards New Delhi’s rule in 1989, and 1000’s of fighters and civilians are killed within the following years as battles between safety forces and Kashmiri rebels roil the area.

Widespread human rights abuses are documented on each side of the battle because the rise up takes maintain.

Hundreds of Kashmiri Hindus flee to different components of India from 1990 onwards fearing reprisal assaults.

1999: Kargil battle

In 1999, Pakistan-backed rebels cross the disputed Kashmir border, seizing Indian navy posts within the icy heights of the Kargil mountains.

Indian troops push the intruders again, ending the 10-week battle, which kills almost 1,000 fighters and troopers on each side. The battle ends beneath stress from the USA.

A collection of assaults in 2001 and 2002, which India blames on Pakistan-based armed teams, results in a brand new mobilisation of troops on each side.

A ceasefire is asserted alongside the frontier in 2003, however a peace course of launched the next 12 months ends inconclusively.

2008: Mumbai assaults

In November 2008, a bunch of closely armed attackers assault the Indian metropolis of Mumbai and kill 166 individuals. India blames Pakistan’s intelligence service for the assault and suspends peace talks.

Contacts resume in 2011, however the scenario is marred by sporadic combating.

Indian troops stage cross-border raids in Kashmir towards separatist positions.

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi makes a shock go to in December 2015 to Pakistan.

2019: Autonomy revoked

India vows retaliation after 41 paramilitary members are killed in a 2019 suicide assault in Kashmir claimed by a Pakistan-based armed group.

Tit-for-tat air raids by the 2 nations take them to the brink of conflict.

Later that 12 months, India immediately revokes Kashmir’s restricted autonomy beneath the structure, detaining 1000’s of political opponents within the territory.

Authorities impose what turns into the world’s longest web shutdown and troops are despatched to bolster the estimated half 1,000,000 safety forces already stationed there.

Tens of 1000’s of individuals, primarily civilians, have been killed since 1990 within the rise up.

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