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“Fairness Has To Be All About Excellence,” Says Winner of $3.9 Million Schooling Prize


Linda Darling-Hammond—the president and CEO of the Studying Coverage Institute, Charles E. Ducommun Professor of Schooling Emeritus at Stanford College, and routinely on the high of the chief board within the annual RHSU Edu-Scholar rankings—has been awarded the 2022 Yidan Prize for Schooling Analysis. The $3.9 million prize, arguably the world’s most prestigious schooling award, credited Linda’s scholarship with “reveal[ing] the varied methods youngsters be taught and the way greatest to show them—and feed[ing] these insights into sturdy educator growth applications and remodeled faculties.” Whereas Linda and I’ve disagreed a lot over time, I’ve nice respect for her exceptional contributions. So, I believed I’d take this chance to ask her a number of questions on her work, the award, and the problems of the day.

Hess: Congratulations, Linda. It’s a well-deserved honor. For starters, are you able to say a number of phrases about the way you got here to concentrate on the sorts of points—like skilled growth and instructor preparation—for which you might be honored?

Linda Darling-Hammond

Darling-Hammond: Thanks, Rick. I grew to become curious about instructor studying due to my very own experiences as a highschool English instructor. I fell into instructing after school, coming into by means of an alternate-route intern program in Philadelphia that positioned me in a full-time instructing place after just some weeks of student-teaching in the course of the summer season. Whereas I had taught in an city after-school program throughout school, I rapidly realized how underprepared I used to be to satisfy the wants of all my college students—together with excessive schoolers who couldn’t but learn. The skilled growth I skilled was restricted and unhelpful. Whereas I used to be enthusiastic and hardworking, and the scholars preferred me effectively sufficient, I couldn’t discover the data base for instructing that I used to be desperately searching for at the moment. After I met some extraordinary lecturers and started to review how they’d realized to show, and carried out analysis on instructor preparation at RAND and, later, at Academics Faculty, Columbia College, I found a deep data base that few lecturers might entry. I decided then to work on understanding high-quality preparation for lecturers and determining the way it might develop into widespread.

Hess: You’ve proven a exceptional capacity to straddle the worlds of academia and authorities. You’ve served as president of the California board of schooling, chaired the California Fee on Instructor Credentialing, helmed Obama’s schooling transition crew in 2008, and Biden’s transition crew in 2020. What have you ever realized from these roles?

Darling-Hammond: As you understand, there’s a deep divide between analysis and apply and a fair deeper divide between analysis and coverage. That schism grew to become obvious over the last years of No Baby Left Behind, a subject about which you and I penned a joint op-ed because the regulation’s implementation grew to become an increasing number of dysfunctional. As I’ve engaged within the coverage course of, I’ve realized extra in regards to the constraints and concerns policymakers should take note of and what it takes to get previous infatuation with a single silver bullet to really construct a considerate system of helps and incentives. On the Studying Coverage Institute, my colleagues and I search to know the best way to convey strong proof to the coverage enviornment, notably in methods which are evidence-based, straightforward to know, and sensible for policymakers. That may be a large translation job that requires common engagement and communication with respect on either side.

Hess: You’re a champion {of professional} growth, however you’ve additionally acknowledged that a lot of it’s ineffective. Why is that? And what can we do about it?

Darling-Hammond: In lots of locations, skilled growth has been designed as a torturous “sit and get” occasion the place some outsider is available in and talks at drained lecturers, who are supposed to merely hear: one of the vital ineffective approaches to studying. After all, more practical approaches exist. My LPI colleagues and I screened the literature for high-quality research that discovered professional-development fashions that modified instructor apply and enabled student-learning features. We discovered that these fashions had a variety of options in widespread: They had been based mostly within the curriculum content material being taught; engaged lecturers in lively studying as lecturers tried out the practices they’d use; supplied fashions of the practices with classes, assignments, and training; prolonged over time (usually a minimum of 50 hours of interplay over a variety of months) with iterative alternatives to attempt issues within the classroom and proceed to refine. As well as, these efforts had been virtually at all times accompanied by in-person or on-line teaching, generally utilizing classroom movies because the grist for these conversations.

Hess: On a associated word, what do you consider the state of instructor preparation as we speak? Do you assume it has improved over the previous couple a long time—and is there any solution to actually know?

Darling-Hammond: I believe a strong group of teacher-preparation applications have been enhancing since a minimum of the late Nineteen Eighties, when the Holmes Group of Deans and the Nationwide Community for Instructional Renewal labored with flagship universities and different dedicated faculties to design a brand new mannequin—a coherent, content-rich program linking college students to accomplice faculties demonstrating state-of-the-art apply for coaching and fascinating candidates in a full yr of graduated accountability with knowledgeable mentors. This helps faculty and college enchancment on the identical time. Nevertheless, there was no coverage help for this work for the final 20 years or for the coaching prices of potential lecturers, and instructor salaries have declined because the early Nineties. Consequently, the standard of instructor schooling has grown extra variable as shortages have grown, and plenty of applications have been designed to chop corners to get lecturers into lecture rooms rapidly.

Hess: Because the Yidan Prize Basis famous, you’ve spent a profession as a number one voice for fairness. It appears to me that one ensuing problem is how to make sure that a wholesome concern for fairness doesn’t morph into an unhealthy disdain for the notion of excellence. How do you concentrate on this problem? How do you advise practitioners and policymakers to proceed on that depend?

Darling-Hammond: I believe fairness needs to be all about excellence: Fairness entails getting all college students entry to glorious instructing and rigorous, wealthy, related studying alternatives. It means serving to college students be taught as a lot as they’ll, creating their explicit passions and pursuits, and assembly their wants alongside the way in which. Fairness, nevertheless, will not be about standardization—doing precisely the identical factor with or for all college students. We now know from the science of studying and growth that almost all of human potential is constructed by the relationships and experiences folks have all through their lives, not assumed at start. Provided that college students come to high school with totally different experiences, beginning factors, and methods of studying, the instructing and studying course of needs to be customized to an important extent. Typically this will imply knowledgeable use of collaboration and differentiation inside the classroom. Typically it could imply intensive tutoring at key moments to assist college students speed up their studying. It could imply after-school and summer season faculty studying alternatives. It ought to by no means imply holding again some college students from alternatives in favor of equal outcomes. As an alternative, it ought to at all times imply leveling up the alternatives to be taught in order that we’ve got extra achieved, contributing members of society.

Hess: As you advise faculties and programs in gentle of the pandemic, what’s the one most essential factor you’d encourage them to do?

Darling-Hammond: I might encourage educators and policymakers to make use of this second of deep disruption to reinvent the way in which we do faculty: to maneuver past the assembly-line manufacturing facility mannequin we inherited 100 years in the past to new fashions which are extra versatile, equitable, and profitable. Innovators have created many new designs that enable for extra customized and experiential studying; stronger relationships amongst lecturers, college students, and households; time for lecturers to collaborate round curriculum, instructing, and decisionmaking; and competency-based approaches that modify time and strategies—from high-intensity tutoring to inventive makes use of of expertise—relatively than accepting disparate outcomes alongside a bell curve. To get to this new future, faculties of schooling ought to accomplice with such progressive faculties for coaching up the lecturers and leaders of the longer term. Policymakers ought to take away the constraints and laws that had been designed to prop up the manufacturing facility mannequin. They need to work to make sure assets are supporting well-prepared educators who can innovate and make good selections for youngsters, relatively than making an attempt to micromanage faculties themselves.

This interview has been edited and condensed for readability.

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