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Cougar, Puma, Panther & Mountain Lion

Do you know that mountain lions have the most important geographic vary of any non-human land mammals within the Western Hemisphere? It’s no shock this magnificent animal, native to the Americas, is named many issues: puma, catamount, cougar, painter and panther. The reason being as a result of folks from varied nations, from Chile to Canada, have completely different names for it. The animal additionally has a large number of nicknames, such because the ghost of the Rockies, purple tiger and mountain screamer, amongst others.

Meet Puma Concolor

It doesn’t matter what you name it, it’s nonetheless the identical wild cat, scientifically generally known as Puma concolor, which implies a big feline resembling a lion with one stable shade. Nevertheless, these beauties are available a variety of shades, from rust and grayish to a tawny tan, and their infants are noticed. Darkish-colored markings are discovered on the ears, across the snout and on the tip of the tail.

These predators sport a robust physique with brief legs, upright ears, giant paws, sharp claws, putting steely eyes and a protracted tail. Their hind legs are bigger and extra muscular than their entrance, giving them nice leaping energy.

A enjoyable reality about these giant cats is that they can’t roar like lions. As an alternative, they hiss, purr or growl, like home cats!

Portrait of Beautiful Puma. Cougar, mountain lion, puma, panther, striking pose, scene in the woods, wildlife America

Though the mountain lion is the one giant cat species with an growing inhabitants, its present numbers nonetheless don’t rival these of its previous. It continues to face threats as a result of prey depletion, human-wildlife battle and habitat loss from agricultural and concrete improvement.

Hold studying to study extra about these fascinating mammals, the right way to assist guarantee their survival, and the place to see them.

Wild Cats: What’s in a Identify?

As a result of the mountain lion has such a variety, spanning 28 nations and 16 states within the U.S., it goes by many names. Actually, it has so many names in English alone (round 40) that it holds the Guinness E-book of World Information distinction.

In North America, the feline is also known as mountain lion, cougar and panther, the final primarily in Florida. Spanish explorers in North and South America referred to it as gato monte (cat of the mountain) and leon (lion), which translated to mountain lion through the years.

mountain lion, cougar, puma sitting on a sandstone ledge

A mountain lion surveying the deserts of the American Southwest from atop a sandstone ledge.

The time period cougar could have come from an previous phrase that the Portuguese picked up in Brazil: çuçuarana. Extra frequent references are the Colorado cougar and Yuma (Arizona) cougar. East of Mississippi, the animal can also be referred to as catamount, deer tiger and painter.

The phrase panther encompasses all cats that includes a solid-colored coat, and it’s utilized to huge cats, equivalent to mountain lions, in addition to jaguars and leopards which are black in shade. The Florida panther, the state’s official animal, is a subspecies of the mountain lion. Whereas not black in shade, it options tawny-beige fur and a curved tail. It is without doubt one of the most endangered mammals on the earth.

This panther walks through the tall grasses of Florida’s diverse terrain.

A panther walks by means of the tall grasses of Florida’s numerous terrain. You might be able to spot one on a Florida Nature Safari!

The Incas of South America referred to as the animal puma of their language, and it has a symbolic significance representing energy, knowledge and intelligence. It’s nonetheless known as such within the nations that it calls residence.

Wild puma tracking prey down the rocks slopes and mountainside of Torres del Paine National Park in Chile. Wild Cougar (Puma concolor concolor) in Torres del Paine national park in Chile. Walking towards the photographer.

Wild puma monitoring prey down the rocks slopes and mountainside of Torres del Paine Nationwide Park in Chile.

Vary and The place to See Them

The mountain lion is an adaptable huge cat that may reside, as its identify suggests, within the mountains. But it surely additionally thrives in deserts, forests, prairies and wetlands and is even seen within the fringes of cities.

Cougar(Puma concolor)An endangered Florida Panther

Chasing after prey in Florida’s forests.

Mountain lions are present in 14 western states. The Florida panther solely calls the Everglades Nationwide Park and Huge Cypress Nationwide Protect residence. There was a time the place these predators had been discovered throughout the South, from Louisiana to South Florida. Their numbers dwindled to as few as 25 to 30 by the early Nineteen Nineties. At present, there are about 200 cats left in Florida’s swamplands. Fortunate vacationers could spot the endangered animal on a Pure Habitat Adventures Florida Nature Safari within the Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, located within the Western Everglades.

Two wild Cougars (Puma concolor concolor) in Torres del Paine national park in Chile.

Dwelling life on the sting in South America’s high-altitude atmosphere.

Puma sightings are additionally potential in Brazil, Chile, Peru and Colombia, amongst others. Visitors on Nat Hab’s Brazil journey can search for them within the Pantanal tropical wetland. In Patagonia, the puma is the most important predator, and its vary spans from Arica to Magallanes on the tip of Chile. On Nat Hab’s Patagonia Wilderness & Wildlife Explorer journey, these animals will be noticed in Torres del Paine Nationwide Park.

Wild Puma, Puma concolor, near denning site, Torres del Paine, Chile, South America

A denning website in Torres del Paine Nationwide Park.

Evidently geographic location determines the scale and shade of the animal. They’re smaller close to the equator and bigger across the poles. Males weigh anyplace from 115 to 220 kilos and females between 64 to 141 kilos. Mountain lions in colder climates are inclined to have longer and thicker hair in a silver-gray shade, whereas these in hotter and humid areas are reddish brown.


Mountain Lion Jumping and pouncing onto prey in the snowy mountains

These strong felines are ambush predators who stalk their prey round daybreak and nightfall earlier than pouncing and killing it with their sturdy jaws. Just like the cheetah, the mountain lion has a versatile backbone that helps it transfer round obstacles and shortly change course when wanted. They’re carnivores and eat small mammals, equivalent to deer and guanaco (a camelid native to South America). Mountain lions additionally hunt sheep, feral pigs, raccoons, armadillos, squirrels, hares and even porcupines. Stronger ones will even go after elk and moose. The animal is thought to bury its meals to return again and feast on later.

Mountain lions are elusive and don’t like confrontation with people. Encountering one on a hike or in your neighborhood is unlikely. Keep away from going out in mountain lion areas at daybreak and nightfall (after they hunt) to stop any encounters. When tenting, by no means go away meals out.

Mountain Lion in Dead Tree overlooking snowy mountainside in winter


Mountain lions are listed as of least concern on the IUCN Crimson Listing; nevertheless, their inhabitants is on the decline. Within the U.S., the Florida panther is protected underneath the Endangered Species Act. Sadly, the Japanese cougar was declared extinct in 2018, with the final confirmed sighting in 1938.

Till the arrival of European settlers within the late 1800s, these felines roamed wild areas from Canada’s Yukon to the tip of South America, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Quickly after, mountain lion habitat started to vanish, together with their prey. These stunning animals had been killed for his or her fur and to guard livestock. They had been thought of vermin, and bounty applications had been launched to regulate their numbers within the West within the Forties. This precipitated the mountain lion inhabitants to lower drastically. At present, there are solely an estimated 30,000 cougars in North America.

Three wild Cougars (Puma concolor concolor) in Torres del Paine national park in Chile. A family group crossing a road.

Habitat loss poses the most important menace to mountain lions, together with fragmentation from freeways, overhunting of their prey and retaliatory assaults for preying on livestock. Pumas are territorial, solitary and want giant areas of habitat to outlive. With the rise in human inhabitants and concrete improvement, conflicts are inevitable, and, with that, killings of those animals for his or her perceived threats. Closely traveled roads in locations like California are harmful for mountain lions that roam a number of miles a day seeking meals, and Florida panthers are sometimes victims of motorized vehicle collisions.

Urban Mountain Lion (Felis concolor)

A cougar seeks non permanent shelter underneath a parked automobile.

Mountain lions are thought of sport species, with leisure searching allowed in 13 states. California and Florida are among the many states the place searching mountain lions is prohibited. In Florida, illegally killing a panther is punishable by as much as a 12 months in jail and carries a hefty tremendous. The federal government of Chile prohibited searching of pumas in 1980.

Trying Forward

There’s a silver lining, as researchers started to seek out small pockets of cougar populations within the east of the Rocky Mountains within the Nineteen Nineties, together with within the Midwest and as far east as Connecticut and Maine. In 1995, eight feminine cougars had been introduced from Texas to Florida to mate with males in an effort to scale back inbreeding and enhance the inhabitants. The hassle proved profitable and prevented the state animal from turning into extinct.

As apex predators, mountain lions play an essential function in sustaining the biodiversity and stability of the ecosystem. They maintain feral hog, deer and raccoon numbers down, guaranteeing they don’t develop uncontrolled for that habitat. Additionally they assist curb ailments, equivalent to Lyme illness, which are dangerous to people and home canines. These pure engineers deserve our respect and safety from threats throughout the Americas.

Cougar (Puma concolor), puma, mountain lion, panther, or catamount



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