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Canine genetics, Moon capsule and skewed sports activities science

Low angle view of a dog walker walking six dogs of different breeds

Researchers have pinpointed genetic variants linked to completely different canine behaviours.Credit score: Paul Bersebach/MediaNews Group/Orange County Register/Getty

Research finds genetic hyperlinks to canine behaviours

An evaluation that mixed behavioural knowledge from 46,000 canines with DNA sequences from 4,000 canines has pinpointed genetic variants linked to their attribute behaviours, similar to nervousness or aggression (E. V. Dutrow et al. Cell 185, 4737–4755; 2022).

To hint the genetic origins of behavioural traits, researchers scrapped the standard breed classes — which had been discovered to be a poor predictor for behaviour — and sorted canines into ten genetic lineages. An evaluation of DNA sequences related to completely different behaviours recognized a lot of variants linked with the event of the nervous system. Herding sheepdogs, for instance, had genes that, in mice, are related to moms’ instincts to guard their pups.

The outcomes are an thrilling advance in understanding the relationships between canine lineages, says geneticist Elinor Karlsson on the College of Massachusetts Chan Medical College in Worcester.

“That is beginning to transfer past the thought of evaluating one breed to a different breed, and in direction of actually how behaviour maps onto the ancestry of canines,” she says.

NASA's Orion Capsule is drawn into the well deck of the USS Portland during recovery operations after it splashed down.

NASA’s Orion capsule was recovered off the coast of Baja California, Mexico, on 11 December.Credit score: Mario Tama/AFP/Getty

NASA’s Orion Moon capsule splashes down

NASA’s Orion capsule splashed down safely off the coast of Mexico on 11 December, bringing a near the primary check flight of a brand new spaceship designed to hold individuals again to the Moon. Researchers are excited to obtain knowledge from the profitable 25-day flight to the Moon and again, generally known as Artemis I.

The accomplishment units the stage for Orion’s subsequent journey, which will probably be a loop across the Moon with astronauts on board. However that mission, Artemis II, gained’t come earlier than 2024 on the earliest. Artemis III, prone to fly later within the decade, can be a crewed touchdown on the Moon’s south pole, the place researchers wish to examine ice nestled in shadowed craters.

A set of flight computer systems on board Orion will now must be retrieved, analysed and authorized earlier than they are often put in within the capsule that can fly on Artemis II — a vital step that can take time. Engineers may even be retrieving knowledge from scientific sensors, similar to knowledge on radiation publicity contained in the capsule, in order that astronauts on Artemis II may be as secure as doable. “We’re actually trying ahead to unpacking every thing that we needed to study from this mission as we put together for the following one,” says Emily Nelson, chief flight director on the Johnson House Middle in Houston, Texas.

How sports activities science is neglecting feminine athletes

Analysis on the science of sport is closely skewed in direction of male athletes, finds a evaluate of a whole lot of sports-medicine research (R. W. Paul et al. Am. J. Sports activities Med.; 2022). The imbalance leaves giant gaps in data about feminine sports activities and sport-related accidents.

Researchers reviewed 669 research revealed between 2017 and 2021 in 6 main sports-science journals. Simply 9% of the research centered solely on feminine athletes, whereas 71% centered solely on male athletes. The starkest comparability was in baseball and softball, with 91% of research specializing in male gamers and solely 5% specializing in feminine gamers.

The authors say the disparity could possibly be on account of a number of components, from monetary incentives to the provision of knowledge in public databases and an over-representation of male researchers within the subject.

SLOW PROGRESS. Graphic shows that whilst studies focussing on female athletes is increasing they are still under-represented.

Supply: Ref. 1Supply: R. W. Paul et al. Am. J. Sports activities Med. (2022)

There was a slight enchancment previously few years, and the proportion of research that focus solely on girls or ladies or included each female and male athletes is regularly growing (see ‘Sluggish progress’).

A evaluate of this sort is lengthy overdue, says Willie Stewart, a neuroscientist on the College of Glasgow, UK, who research concussion. “It displays the overall neglect of feminine sport.”



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